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Konark Herbal and Health Care

Vilayati Imli

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Garcinia is a plant genus of the family Clusiaceae. Garcinia combogia (synonym Garcinia gummi-gutta, Garcinia quaesita) is a subtropical species of Garcinia native to Indonesia also commonly known as Gambooge, Brindleberry, Malabar tamarind. Garcinia cambogia is a small or medium-sized tree with a rounded crown and horizontal or drooping branches. It flowers during the summer season, and fruits ripen during the rainy season. (1).
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Botanical Names
Garcinia combogia
Indian Names
Hindi : Hila, Velaiti imli Marathi : Kokum Tamil : Kodukkaippuli, Kadumpuli, Kodakapuli, Kodakka puli, Malayalam : Kudampuli Kodapuli, Kodapuri, Pinaru, Zkodapuli , Pinaru Sinhalese : Goraka Malayalam : Kodumpuli Kannada : Simehunese, Upagimara Telugu : Simachinta
Chemical Constituents
The phyto chemical analysis of Garcinia combogia shows that it contains phenolic compounds such as steroids, xanthines, benzophenones, tannins, guttiferins and saponins. The Garcinia combogia extract tested positive for the phytochemical compounds such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, resins and proteins (2). Hydroxycitric acid is the principal acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. Hydrocitric acid was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase which catalyzes the extra mitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. The inhibition of this reaction limits the availability of acetyl-CoA units required for fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis during a lipogenic diet, that is, a diet high in carbohydrate (3).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Garcinia combogia is a flowering plant with a wide range of medicinal uses which include antiparasitic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic and as purgative. Seeds of G. combogia possess antithrombotic activity. The antithrombotic activity of the methanolic seed extracts of Garcinia combogia in comparison with a known standard drug (aspirin) as the positive control has been evaluated. The result showed that the platelet count was reduced showing that the methanolic seed extract of Garcinia combogia has antithrombotic properties (4). Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model (5). Extracts from this species are an ingredient in some herbal appetite suppressant and energy products. Other traditional uses of Garcinia Cambogia are as astringent, antioxidant, anticatarrhal, demulcent, thermogenic, cardiotonic, anti-cancer, or antihelminthic etc.
Health Benefits
Garcinia cambogia is well known component used in anti-obesity herbal supplement around the world for decades. Hydroxy citric acid (HCA), the principal acid in the fruits of Garcinia cambogia, is a competitive inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase the enzyme responsible for fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride biosynthesis. The inhibitory action of HCA reduces the acetyl-CoA pool, thus limiting the availability of the two carbon units required for the initial steps of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis (6). There was a significant reduction in body weight, increase in body temperature, locomotor activity and serum glucose levels after treatment with G. combogia extract in cafeteria diet and atherogenic diet fed rats. Treatment with G. combogia also significantly decreased total cholesterol in rats fed with atherogenic diet (7). Garcinia cambogia extract is an herbal preparation that has been suggested as useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. It has been tested for its antiulcerogenic effect. Oral pretreatment with Garcinia cambogia fruit extract protected the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by indomethacin. Garcinia cambogia was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defence in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Administration of flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia, significantly lowered lipid levels in rats fed normal and cholesterol-containing diets.
Research References
1. B. S. JENA, G. K. JAYAPRAKASHA, R. P. SINGH, AND K. K. SAKARIAH Chemistry and Biochemistry of (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid from Garcinia J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 10-22 2. ASIKA E.C, IDONIJE B.O., OKHAI .O. and IRIBHOGBE I.O Preliminary investigation of antithrombotic activities of methanolic seed extracts of Garcinia Combogia in rats Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (3) :333-346 3. Jena B. S., Jayaprakash G. K., Singh R. P. Sakariah K. Chemistry and biochemistry of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2002, 50(1):10-22 4. GURPREET K. and KULKARNI S.K. ANTIOBESITY EFFECT OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION, OB-200G IN FEMALE RATS FED ON CAFETERIA AND ATHEROGENIC DIETS Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2000; 32: 294-299 5. Steven B. H., David B. A., Joseph R. V., Angelo P., Debra G. and Christopher N. Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent A Randomized Controlled Trial JAMA, 1998 280(18):1596-1600 The Journal of International Medical Research 2000; 28: 229 – 233 6. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of a New Weight-reducing Agent of Natural Origin E THOM The Journal of International Medicinal Research 2000, 28:229-233 7. P. Mahendran, A. J. Vanisree, and C. S. Shyamala Devi Phytotherapy Research The antiulcer activity of Garcinia cambogia extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats 2002, 16(1): 80–83 8. Asha S. K., L. Anila and N. R. Vijayalakshmi Flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia lower lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats Food Chemistry 2001, 72(3): 289-294 9. Keun-Young K., Hye Nam L., Yun Jung K. and Taesun P. Garcinia cambogia Extract Ameliorates Visceral Adiposity in C57BL/6J Mice Fed on a High-Fat Diet Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem 2008, 72 (7):1772–1780